Who Signed The Geneva Agreement

The four 1949 conventions were ratified by 196 states, including all UN member states, both nonconsible observers, the Holy See and the State of Palestine, and the Cook Islands. The protocols were ratified by 174, 169 and 77 states respectively. In addition, Article 90 of Protocol I states that “the High Contracting Parties may, at the time of signing, ratification or adherence to the Protocol or at any subsequent date, declare that they may, ipso facto and without any special agreement, request the jurisdiction of the [International Commission of Inquiry] , as approved in this article.” [1] 76 states made such a statement. 1. The Geneva Conventions refer to a series of agreements relating to the future of Vietnam. They were developed during multilateral discussions in Geneva between March and July 1954. The Geneva conference lasted until 21 July before signing a formal agreement. Among the terms of the Geneva Conventions, the United States replaced the French as political backer to Ngo Dinh Diem, prime minister of the state of Vietnam, who asserted his power in the South. The Geneva conference had not provided specific mechanisms for the national elections scheduled for 1956 and Diem refused to organize them, saying that the South had not signed and was not bound by the Geneva Conventions and that it was impossible to hold free elections in the communist North. Instead, he tried to dismantle the communist opposition.

[27] [28] The agreement was signed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, France, the People`s Republic of China, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom. The State of Vietnam rejected the agreement,[23] while the United States said it “takes note” of the ceasefire agreements and said it would “refrain from threatening or using force to disrupt them.” [5]:606 After intense negotiations that began on 8 May 1954, the day after the fall of the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, agreements were finally signed on 21 July between the French and Vietnamese, Laotian and Cambodian representatives. The main provisions were in favour of a ceasefire line along the 17th parallel (effectively split in two); 300 days for each side, to withdraw their troops at its side of the line; Communist troops and guerrillas for the evacuation of Laos and Cambodia, where free elections would be held in 1955 and where French troops could be deployed if requested by the Lao or Cambodian government. It was expressly stated that the demarcation line “should not be construed as a political or territorial boundary under any circumstances.” Implementation of the agreements should be overseen by a commission made up of representatives from India, Poland and Canada. A provision known as the final declaration stipulated that all Vietnamese elections should be held before July 1956, under the supervision of the Committee, in order to again deny the country. This was an issue of great importance in persuading Viet Minh to accept the temporary regrouping of its troops in the northern half of the country, since it controlled three-quarters of Vietnam on the eve of the conference. The British and Communist Chinese delegations agreed on the sidelines of the conference on the revaluation of their diplomatic relations. [24] The agreements also contained provisions for the timing of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan.

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